Ubuntu 20.04 LTS 服务器&WSL2 快速配置笔记

root 账号

初始化系统先设置 root 密码

sudo passwd root

切到 root 账户权限

su

时区调整

sudo dpkg-reconfigure tzdata

切换语言到中文

这个根据喜好可以做也可以不做,个人比较喜欢中文提示,详见

https://lance.moe/post-319.html

实用小工具

NiceEdit:一个可视化的编辑器,不需要像 vim 等编辑器一样记忆繁杂的指令,简单易用,适合新手入门。

sudo apt install ne

ncdu:一个磁盘占用情况分析工具,可以很方便找到占硬盘的大文件,防止服务器磁盘爆满导致无法正常运行的情况,建议安装好系统就安装这个工具。可以使用键盘的箭头键快速浏览列表,并通过d键删除占用太多空间的文件。

sudo apt install ncdu
全盘扫描指令:ncdu /

SSH 配置

备份原始配置

sudo cp /etc/ssh/sshd_config /etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak

编辑配置

sudo vim /etc/ssh/sshd_config

修改如下几行

Port 8022                    # (22 端口默认被占用,此处更换为 8022 端口)
ListenAddress 0.0.0.0        # (监听端口0.0.0.0,解除注释,去掉前面的 #)
PermitRootLogin yes          # (允许 root 登陆,修改为 yes)
#StrictModes yes             # (严格模式,注释掉,在前面加上 #)
PasswordAuthentication yes   # (允许使用密码登陆,原来是 no 改成 yes)

Tips:vim 的用法

键盘上点击「i」键后进入插入模式,可对文本进行编辑

编辑完毕后按「ESC」键退出插入模式

输入「:wq」保存并退出

启动 SSH

sudo service ssh start

如果提示 sshd error: could not load host key 则需要重新生成 key

sudo dpkg-reconfigure openssh-server

此时 SSH 已经启动,可以在 Xshell 等工具中尝试登陆了

更换源列表 & 更新软件包

备份源列表

sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list.bak

编辑源列表

sudo vim /etc/apt/sources.list

博主在日本,所以切换成在日本比较快的源,国内的朋友可以使用阿里云的源,具体列表可以到网上寻找

#

# deb cdrom:[Ubuntu-Server 18.04 LTS _Bionic Beaver_ - Release amd64 (20180426)]/ bionic main restricted

# deb cdrom:[Ubuntu-Server 18.04 LTS _Bionic Beaver_ - Release amd64 (20180426)]/ bionic main restricted

# See http://help.ubuntu.com/community/UpgradeNotes for how to upgrade to
# newer versions of the distribution.
deb http://jp.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ focal main restricted
# deb-src http://jp.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted

## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the
## distribution.
deb http://jp.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ focal-updates main restricted
# deb-src http://jp.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team. Also, please note that software in universe WILL NOT receive any
## review or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://jp.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ focal universe
# deb-src http://jp.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ bionic universe
deb http://jp.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ focal-updates universe
# deb-src http://jp.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates universe

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to
## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in
## multiverse WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu
## security team.
deb http://jp.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ focal multiverse
# deb-src http://jp.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ bionic multiverse
deb http://jp.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ focal-updates multiverse
# deb-src http://jp.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates multiverse

## N.B. software from this repository may not have been tested as
## extensively as that contained in the main release, although it includes
## newer versions of some applications which may provide useful features.
## Also, please note that software in backports WILL NOT receive any review
## or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://jp.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ focal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src http://jp.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from Canonical's
## 'partner' repository.
## This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is offered by Canonical and the
## respective vendors as a service to Ubuntu users.
# deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu bionic partner
# deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu bionic partner

deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal-security main restricted
# deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security main restricted
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal-security universe
# deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security universe
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal-security multiverse
# deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security multiverse
# deb http://nginx.org/packages/mainline/ubuntu/ bionic nginx
# deb-src http://nginx.org/packages/mainline/ubuntu/ bionic nginx

更新源列表,使新源生效

sudo apt update

更新所有软件包

sudo apt upgrade

删除已经失效的软件包

sudo apt autoremove

开启 BBR

Google 开源了其 TCP BBR 拥塞控制算法,并提交到了 Linux 内核,从 4.9 开始,Linux 内核已经用上了该算法。根据以往的传统,Google 总是先在自家的生产环境上线运用后,才会将代码开源,此次也不例外。 根据实地测试,在部署了最新版内核并开启了 TCP BBR 的机器上,网速甚至可以提升好几个数量级。

运行 lsmod | grep bbr,如果结果中没有tcp_bbr,则先运行:

modprobe tcp_bbr

Ubuntu 18.04 LTS 之后的新版系统可以直接开启 BBR:

sudo bash -c 'echo "net.core.default_qdisc=fq" >> /etc/sysctl.conf'
sudo bash -c 'echo "net.ipv4.tcp_congestion_control=bbr" >> /etc/sysctl.conf'
sudo sysctl -p

保存生效。运行:

sysctl net.ipv4.tcp_available_congestion_control
sysctl net.ipv4.tcp_congestion_control

若均有 bbr ,则恭喜 BBR 已经开启。开启 BBR 后,网速有极大提升,我的树莓派从原来的 40Mbps 左右带宽增速到了 80Mbps,效果显著。

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